NordBord Research and Normative Values

VALD does not perform research, however we are lucky to have a number of world-leading universities and research institutions who use VALD systems as an integral part of their research.  

While we don't publish normative ranges for our products, there are several prominent external papers which may help provide context.

Cohort Reference Link
Professional Australian Rules Football (AFL) Opar, A., Williams, M., Timmins, R., Hickey, J., Duhig, S., Shield, A. Eccentric hamstring strength and hamstring injury risk in Australian footballers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(4):857-65. Abstract
Professional Australian Football (Soccer) (A-League) Timmins, R., Bourne, M., Shield, A., Williams, M., Lorenzen, C., & Opar, D. (2015). Short biceps femoris fascicles and eccentric knee flexor weakness increase the risk of hamstring injury in elite football (soccer): a prospective cohort study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, bjsports-2015-095362. Abstract
Professional and sub-elite Rugby Union (Super Rugby) Bourne, M., Opar, D., Williams, M., Shield, A. (2015). Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength and Risk of Hamstring Injuries in Rugby Union: A Prospective Study. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015 Nov;43(11):2663-70 Abstract